Extradition is the legal process by which one country surrenders a criminal suspect or fugitive to another country and this plays a crucial role in maintaining global security and upholding the rule of law. The UAE’s extradition system is primarily governed by Federal Law No. 39 of 2006 concerning International Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters (the “Extradition Law”). This legislation outlines the procedures and conditions for requesting and granting extradition.
Under the Extradition Law, the UAE allows for the extradition of individuals who are accused or convicted of crimes in a foreign country, provided certain conditions are met. Such conditions include the existence of a mutual extradition treaty between the UAE and the requesting country or a principle of reciprocity. Moreover, the alleged offense must be considered a criminal offense in both the UAE and the requesting country.
The UAE has signed several extradition treaties with various countries to enhance international cooperation in fighting transnational crime. These treaties facilitate the extradition process by reorganization legal requirements and ensuring fairness in the treatment of suspects. Some of the notable extradition treaties include those with the United States, the United Kingdom, India, and many other Arab and European countries.
Despite having a structured legal framework, extradition cases in the UAE are not without challenges. One of the significant obstacles arises from the country’s approach to national sovereignty, which can lead to discretionary decisions by the UAE government in extradition matters. The government may refuse extradition requests if they believe the suspect might face the death penalty or ill-treatment in the requesting country.
Moreover, the concept of dual criminality, which requires that the alleged offense be recognized as a crime in both the UAE and the requesting state, can also create complexities. Differences in legal definitions and interpretations of offenses between jurisdictions may result in a refusal to extradite.